Coal Mining: A Threat to Alabama Waters

ADEM has consistently violated state law in failing to set sufficient limits on specific pollutants in Alabama’s waters.


Photo © Beth Young

Latest News

SELC, partners urge cleanup of abandoned mine site polluting Black Warrior River More »

SELC and partners Black Warrior Riverkeeper and Public Justice filed a notice of intent to sue today against Drummond Company for violations at its Maxine Mine site, an abandoned underground coal mine on the banks of the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River near Praco, Alabama.

Though mining at Maxine Mine ceased in the 1980s, acid mine drainage has been illegally discharging from the site into the Locust Fork through surface water runoff and seeps from the underground mine for years. The site also presents a substantial imminent harm to human health and the environment due to the storage of tons of mining waste known as geologic overburden, or “GOB,” on a bluff above the Locust Fork. 

The site currently consists of underground mine works, surface piles of mining waste, and a system of man-made drainage ditches and earthen dams used to create sediment basins for runoff from the waste piles. The basins are continuously leaking polluted water and the dams are holding acidic coal mine drainage and waste. 

The main dam by the river is deteriorating and could potentially breach, resulting in a large release of pollutants into the Locust Fork, a primary tributary of the Black Warrior River and a popular area for fishing, boating and other forms of outdoor recreation.

The Maxine Mine site is one of the worst of hundreds of abandoned mines in the Black Warrior basin, many of which continue to degrade streams and contaminate groundwater with unpermitted discharges containing high levels of sediment, heavy metals such as iron and aluminum, and other pollutants.

To address the ongoing pollution and storage of coal mine waste on the Locust Fork, the groups are seeking removal of the mining waste, excavation and/or remediation of contaminated streams, and any other appropriate measures by Drummond to immediately stop all illegal discharges at the site.

“Leaving this site without cleaning up piles of mining waste and polluted sediment, and without taking appropriate measures to stop the flow of acid mine drainage from the basins and ditches left behind is simply unacceptable,” said SELC Senior Attorney Barry Brock. “Until the ongoing pollution at the Maxine Mine site is adequately addressed, it continues to pose a threat to water quality, and the communities and wildlife in the area that depend on clean water.”


Click here to read the notice letter.

View All Updates »

Alabama has a long history of coal mining. The Black Warrior River watershed, for example, is one of the largest coal-producing regions in the South, with more than 100 permitted coal mines. But the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM) has consistently failed to enforce environmental laws to prevent this intensive mining from harming water quality. As a result, many rivers are polluted by runoff carrying acids, heavy metals and sediment.

SELC and our Alabama partners are waging a legal and policy-reform campaign to compel state regulators and mining companies to comply with the Clean Water Act and other laws to ensure that future coal mining does not harm water quality or threaten drinking water supplies.

Nationwide Permit 21

Since November 2013, SELC and partners Black Warrior Riverkeeper and Defenders of Wildlife have been working to stop the use of a lax U.S. Army Corps of Engineers permit, Nationwide Permit 21, in the Black Warrior River basin, a major source of drinking water for Birmingham, Tuscaloosa, and other Alabama communities.

After suspending the use of this permit in the Appalachian region in 2010 because of harmful impacts to water quality, the Corps substantially revised the permit when reissuing it in 2012 to allow only 300 linear feet or a ½ acre of stream to be filled in connection with mining. But the Corps included an arbitrary “grandfather” provision, allowing the unlimited fill of streams and wetlands authorized by the previous version of the permit to continue at 41 mines in Alabama until 2017.

Coal mining activities that result in stream filling typically require individual permits that can only be issued after careful review and public comment, a process the Corps has avoided under Nationwide Permit 21.

In March 2015, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals found that the Corps had erroneously concluded that Nationwide Permit 21 had minimal cumulative environmental impacts and required the agency to complete a reanalysis of the permit’s impacts in Alabama. 

Unfortunately, this reanalysis resulted in the Corps of Engineers again determining that it could allow unfettered stream filling in Alabama. SELC is now back before the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals, again asking the court to strike down this unlawful practice, which could allow the filling of 27 miles of stream in Alabama alone.

Black Creek Mine

On behalf of Black Warrior Riverkeeper and Defenders of Wildlife, SELC is also challenging the Corps’ approval of a stream filling permit for Black Creek Mine, a new 287-acre surface coal mine operated by Canadian company Global Met Coal Corporation on the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River. 

In response to our claims around the permit’s adverse impacts on water quality and rare aquatic wildlife, the Corps has suspended the permit in order to reconsider these issues and to consult with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service as required by the Endangered Species Act.

Filed Under

This Case Affects

Attorneys on Case